Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2

Not everyone who's on top today got there with success after success. More often than not, those who history best remembers were faced with numerous problems that made them work harder and show more determination than others. Next time you're feeling down about your failures at school or any other business, keep these ten famous people in mind and remind yourself that sometimes failure is just the first step towards success.

A. While Henry Ford is known as one of the richest and influential people in the world whose introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2 and American industry, he wasn't an immediate success. In fact, his early businesses failed and left him broke five times before he founded the successful Ford Motor Company.

B. Bill Gates didn't seem to promise any success after giving up his studies in Harvard and starting a failed first business called Traf-O-Data with his friend Paul Allen. While this early idea didn't work, Gates' later work did, creating the global empire that is Microsoft.

C. Today Walt Disney rakes in billions from products, movies and theme parks around the world, but Walt Disney himself had a bit Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2 of a rough start. Hardly had he started his first job in a newspaper when he was fired because, "he lacked imagination and had no good ideas." After that, Disney started a number of businesses that didn't last too long and ended with loss of money and failure. He kept working hard, however, and eventually found a recipe for success that worked.

D. Most of us take Albert Einstein's name as synonymous with genius, but he didn't always show such promise. Einstein did not speak until he was four and did not read Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2 until he was seven, causing his teachers and parents to think he had mental problems, was slow and anti-social. Eventually, he was expelled from school and couldn’t enter the Zurich Polytechnic School. It might have taken him a bit longer, but most people would agree that he caught on pretty well in the end, winning the Nobel Prize and changing the face of modern physics.

E. In his early years, teachers told Thomas Edison he was "too stupid to learn anything." Work was no better, as he was fired from his first two jobs for not being productive enough Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2. Even as an inventor, Edison made 1,000 unsuccessful attempts at inventing the light bulb. Of course, all those unsuccessful attempts finally resulted in the design that worked.

F. The brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright had to cope with depression and family illness before starting the bicycle shop that would lead them to experimenting with flight. After numerous attempts at creating flying machines, several years of hard work, and tons of failed models, the brothers finally created a plane that could get up in the air and stay there.

G. While today Abraham Lincoln is remembered as one of Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2 the greatest leaders of our nation, Lincoln's life wasn't so easy. In his youth he went to war a captain and returned a private (if you're not familiar with military ranks, just know that private is as low as it goes.) Lincoln didn't stop failing there, however. He started numerous failed businesses and lost in numerous elections for public office he participated in.

H. Oprah Winfrey: Most people know Oprah as one of the most iconic faces on TV as well as one of the richest and most influential women in the world. Oprah faced Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2 a hard road to get to that position, however, having a terrible childhood. No sooner had she been born than her teenage mother fled away leaving her to live on her grandmother’s farm. The family was so poor that Winfrey often wore dresses made of potato sacks, for which the local children made fun of her. At 13, after years of horrific life, Winfrey ran away from home. Later she also had numerous career setbacks including losing her job as a television reporter because she was "unfit for TV."

I. Stephen King: The first book by this author, the iconic thriller Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2 Carrie, was turned down 30 times, finally causing King to give up and throw it in the trash. His wife fished it out and encouraged him to finish it and send it again, and the rest is history, with King now having hundreds of books published the distinction of being one of the best-selling authors of all time. His books have sold more than 350 million copies which have been made into many movies and television films.

Unit 10, Lesson 6, Ex.2a)

Who is Nelson Mandela?

Nelson Mandela was the first black President of South Africa. He spent 27 years in Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2 prison for trying to overthrow the pro-apartheid government. After he left prison, he worked to achieve human rights and a better future for everyone in South Africa. He is held in deep respect within South Africa, where he is often referred to by his Xhosa clan name of Madiba or as Tata meaning Father; he is often described as "the father of the nation".

Why is he famous?
Nelson Mandela became famous for his long fight against bad government and racial prejudice. He became a hero to people all over the world. As South Africa's President, he was respected Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2 for his courage and wisdom in bringing people together to live in peace.

When was he born?
Nelson Mandela was born in 1918. He was in prison from 1962 to 1990. He became President of South Africa in 1994, and retired in 1999.

Where was he born?

Rolihlahla Mandela was born on 18 July 1918. Mandela's birth name – Rolihlahla – is an isiXhosa name that means "pulling the branch of the tree". Colloquially it also means "troublemaker". His English name, Nelson, was given to him by a missionary schoolteacher. He was born in the Transkei, south-eastern part of South Africa covered with mountains Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2, valleys and grasslands called savannas.

Where did he grow up?
Mandela's father Henry was a chief of the Tembu people. The Mandelas were related to the Tembu royal family. When Nelson was 9, his father died. He was looked after by another chief of the Tembu.

What education did he get?

Nelson went to a mission school, and then to college. He achieved academic success through "plain hard work." He also excelled at track and boxing. At Fort Hare University, he studied law. One of his friends there was Oliver Tambo. Nelson left the university in 1939, after student protests about Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2 the way it was run.

What job did he choose?
Mandela's family had chosen a wife for him. But he did not want an arranged marriage, so he left for the city of Johannesburg. He went on with his studies, and became a lawyer in 1942.

How did the history of South Africa develop?
Most South Africans are black. There are also people of European and Asian backgrounds, and Coloureds (people of mixed race). Dutch people set up the first white colony in South Africa in 1652, later British settlers arrived. Dutch farmers called themselves ‘Boers’, from a Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2 Dutch word meaning 'farmers'. They spoke a language called Afrikaans, but most other white settlers spoke English. Black people spoke Bantu languages such as isiNdebele and isiZulu. Britain took over the Dutch colony in 1815 and, as a result, South Africa became part of the British Empire. Gold was found in 1886; with gold and good farmland, the country was really rich. However, it was not peaceful. Whites and blacks fought over the land and there were wars between the Boers and the British. The Boers wanted their own country.

How was South Africa ruled?
When Mandela was growing up, black Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2 people had little say in how South Africa was run. The government was whites-only. Most black people were poor. They worked as servants in rich white families, they also worked on farms, in factories and gold mines.

What was the ANC?
In 1944, Nelson Mandela joined the African National Congress or ANC. The ANC wanted black South Africans to have the same human rights as whites. In 1948, the South African government made new laws to keep white people and black people apart. The new system was called 'apartheid'.

What was apartheid?
Apartheid forced white and non-white people to live in separate Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2 areas. Non-white people meant black people, people from Asia and people of mixed race.

A white person and a black person could not marry. Black people and white people could not share a table in a restaurant, or sit together on a bus. Black children and white children went to different schools. Sports teams were all-white or all-black, never mixed.

What was Mandela’s role in doing away with apartheid?
Mandela and Oliver Tambo set up South Africa's first black law firm. Poor people came to them for help. Mandela led young people in Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2 the ANC. Many white people, as well as black people, spoke out against apartheid. Mandela admired Gandhi, who had used peaceful protest in India. Perhaps peaceful protest could get rid of apartheid, without fighting? But to speak out was dangerous. In 1956, Mandela and 155 other people were arrested for treason. After a trial lasting five years, he was set free in 1961.

In 1960, people held a demonstration against apartheid at Sharpeville, near Johannesburg. The police shot dead 69 black people. The government blamed the ANC, and banned it. Mandela became leader of a secret army, known as 'Spear of the Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2 Nation'. He was hunted by the police, and had to hide and use disguises. He travelled to other countries to ask for help.

How did Mandela get to jail?
In 1961 South Africa left the Commonwealth. Millions of people in other countries supported the anti-apartheid movement. Many nations stopped trade with South Africa. Sports teams and entertainers refused to go there. Still the government refused to change. In 1962, Nelson Mandela was arrested again. He was accused of sabotage and plotting to overthrow the government. In 1964, aged 46, he was given a life sentence. Mandela was sent to the prison on Robben Island. Oliver Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2 Tambo had left South Africa to live abroad. Mandela spent 18 years on Robben Island. During his time in prison, Mandela was restricted to a 2m x 2.5m cell, with nothing but a bedroll on the floor and a bucket for sanitation in it. He was consigned to hard labour in a lime quarry for much of that time and was, at first, only allowed one visitor and one letter every six months. He was later moved to another prison.

How did he get out of prison?
Mandela became the most famous prisoner in the world. He Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2 did not give up and for that even the prison guards admired him. At last, in 1988, the South African government began to make changes, one of which was to let black students into 'white' universities. From around the world, the calls got louder. Free Nelson Mandela! In 1990, South Africa's new President F.W. de Klerk set Nelson Mandela free. Mandela and de Klerk had negotiations and agreed: no more fighting. Mandela called on all South Africans to work together in peace.

How did he become President?
In 1991, Mandela became leader of the ANC. In the 1994 elections, all black Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2 people in South Africa were able to vote for the first time. The ANC won the election. A new government took over and in May 1994, Nelson Mandela became South Africa's first black president. Mandela also worked to protect South Africa's economy from collapse during his presidency. Through his Reconstruction and Development Plan, the South African government funded the creation of jobs, housing and basic health care. In 1996, Mandela signed into law a new constitution for the nation, establishing a strong central government based on majority rule, and guaranteeing the rights of minorities and the freedom of expression Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2.

How did Nelson Mandela inspire people?
Another famous South African, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, called South Africa a 'rainbow nation'. Nelson Mandela also spoke of it this way. Its people were of all races and colours, working together.

In 1995, South Africa was host for the rugby World Cup. President Mandela wore a Springbok rugby shirt. The springbok antelope is South Africa's national animal. South Africa's rugby team, the Springboks, had been all-white, but Mandela wore the shirt to help bring white and black together. Sport helped to do this.

How did the world honour Mandela?

Mandela was welcomed around the Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2 world as a great world leader. He was given many honours. In 1993, Nelson Mandela and FW de Klerk shared the Nobel Peace Prize. Mandela wrote a book about his struggle called 'Long Walk to Freedom'. From 2004, he gave up politics, to enjoy a quiet life with his family. Within South Africa, Mandela is widely considered to be "the founding father of democracy", being seen as "the national liberator, the saviour, its Washington and Lincoln rolled into one". In 1993, he received the joint Nobel Peace Prize with de Klerk. In November 2009, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed Unit 10, Lesson 5, Ex.2 Mandela's birthday, 18 July, as "Mandela Day", marking his contribution to the anti-apartheid struggle. It called on individuals to donate 67 minutes to doing something for others, commemorating the 67 years that Mandela had been a part of the movement.

Many artists have dedicated songs to Mandela. He has been depicted in cinema and television on multiple occasions, the latest of them was Invictus (2009) where Mandela is portrayed by Morgan Freeman and Matt Damon plays the role of the national rugby team captain Francois Pienaar.

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